Cellular Black Box Reveals Precision Guidance and Control

first_img tRNA: Guided Trackways:  A paper in PNAS1 took five pages describing one tiny segment of the DNA translation process: the moment when transfer RNA (tRNA) enters the inner sanctum of the protein-building machine, the ribosome (see also summary on Science Now).  If you have seen the animations in the film Unlocking the Mystery of Life, you probably remember the climactic scene of tRNAs lining up in assembly-line fashion as their attached amino acids are fastened together.  Stunning as that animation was, it was vastly oversimplified.  The ribosome actually contains a precisely-molded entrance tunnel where each tRNA is inspected and guided into place before allowed into the active site.  Each tiny movement along the track is authenticated by contacts with specific atoms at checkpoints along the way.  A Los Alamos team achieved the highest-resolution images yet of this process and found that parts of the tRNA and the tunnel turnstiles actually flex as much as 20° as part of the guided entrance, called accommodation.  Their diagrams show multiple precision contacts all along the four specific stages of accommodation they investigated.  Whether able to follow their dense jargon-laden description or not, the reader is sure to get the sense that something incredibly precise is going on.  And then to learn that it all takes place in two nanoseconds is almost too much to handle. DNA Copying: Tight Fit:  Another paper in PNAS2 explored the fit of DNA bases in the copying machinery at the sub-angstrom level (an angstrom is 10-10 meter, about the width of a hydrogen atom).  Stanford and MIT scientists investigated how thymine fits into DNA Polymerase I as the genetic code is transcribed.  As in the tRNA case above, the fit is precise and guided.  They were surprised to find a little bit of margin inside the active site, which they speculated might “allow for an evolutionarily advantageous mutation rate.”  Nevertheless, their “results provide direct evidence for the importance of a tight steric fit on DNA replication fidelity.”  The tight fit ensures that illegal interlopers cannot make it into the active site.  They also found that simple Watson-Crick base-pairing was not sufficient: the machines actually force the bases together in a coordinated way with error-checking.  They remarked that this authentication and guidance system is speedy: “This choice, which occurs dozens of times per second, involves the selection of one nucleotide among four for insertion into the growing primer strand, opposite each DNA template base as it is addressed in turn.” (Emphasis added.) Unzipping Acrobatics:  A paper in Nature3 investigated helicases, the molecular machines that unwind and unzip DNA strands.  “Helicase enzymes can move along DNA or RNA, unraveling the helices as they go,” said Eckhard Jankowsky in an analysis of this paper in the same issue.4  “But simply traveling along a nucleic acid in one direction seems not to be enough for some of these molecular motors.”  They discussed how helicase repeatedly bends over, forms loops, and snaps back into position during the operation.  These acrobatic machines don’t just plod along in one direction but undergo a complex choreography with moving parts as they consume ATP for energy.  The “repetitive shuttling” the authors described has a purpose, possibly for “keeping the DNA clear of toxic recombination intermediates.” Cellular Oarsmen:  Three German researchers imaged eukaryotic flagella with twice the resolution of previous attempts.  The whiplike propellers, which beat with back-and-forth motion (unlike the rotary flagellar motors of bacteria), contain a 9+2 arrangement of microtubules that are tied together with motors and spokes.  “Both the material associated with the central pair of microtubules and the radial spokes display a plane of symmetry that helps to explain the planar beat pattern of these flagella,” they wrote.  Their paper in PNAS6 includes a stereo pair image that provides a 3D look down the flagellum shaft. The literature is filled with examples like these.  They usually say little or nothing about how these machines evolved; in fact, more often, they are likely to mention that the machines are “highly conserved” (i.e., unevolved) between the simplest one-celled organisms and humans.     Though the articles valiantly attempt to describe what happens at these submicroscopic levels, the subject matter would greatly benefit from top-notch animation.  Microscopic imaging technology keeps improving, though; some day soon, it may be possible for scientists to watch the machinery of the cell at its own nanometer scale in real time.  Amazing discoveries about the cell are being made each week.  It’s a shame more people don’t hear about them.  They are usually written up in obscure journals with incomprehensible jargon, but when explained in plain English, the findings are truly astounding.  Not long ago, the cell was a “black box,” a mechanism of unknown inner workings that somehow survived and reproduced.  Only recently have imaging techniques allowed us to peer inside the box at the nanometer scale (one nanometer is a billionth of a meter) and see what is going on.  Prepare to be astonished.     A fundamental shift in thinking about cellular processes has occurred since the structure of DNA was elucidated in the 1950s, and has been accelerating ever since.  What used to be mere chemistry is now mechanics; what used to be imagined as fluids mixing in a watery balloon is now programmed robotic machinery.  Cells don’t just perform chemical reactions like we did in high school, pouring mixtures together and seeing if they explode or not.  It’s more like robotics, and is properly known these days as “biophysics.”  Cells are not just tossing ingredients together, but guiding them into place with motors, pivots, guardrails and inspectors.5  The cell is engaged in precision manufacture with molecular machines and motorized transport.  The coolness factor of these molecule-sized gadgets would blow away any competition in Popular Mechanics if they could be appropriately visualized and described.  Let’s try with some recent examples.center_img 1Sanbonmatsu et al., “Simulating movement of tRNA into the ribosome during decoding,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 10.1073/pnas.0503456102, published online before print October 25, 2005. 2Kim et al., “Probing the active site tightness of DNA polymerase in subangstrom increments,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 10.1073/pnas.0505113102, published online before print October 25, 2005. 3Myong et al., “Repetitive shuttling of a motor protein on DNA,” Nature 437, 1321-1325 (27 October 2005) | doi: 10.1038/nature04049. 4Eckhard Jankowsky, “Biophysics: Helicase snaps back,” Nature 437, 1245 (27 October 2005) | doi: 10.1038/4371245a. 5This is not to say that biomolecular machinery looks like human machinery.  Straight lines and geometric shapes are rare; tRNA entering a ribosome looks like spaghetti in a blender to an untrained eye.  In addition, at the nanometer scale, molecules are subject to the random vibrations of Brownian motion.  It has taken decades of careful research to tease out the order and intricacy of the cell’s moving parts.  Nevertheless, the language of motors and machines in the literature is apt and ubiquitous, as is the language of physics (piconewtons of force, thermodynamics, translational motion in nm/s and rotational motion in Hz or rps).  Human engineers are trying to emulate some of these machines in the new science of nanotechnology. 6Nicastro et al., “3D structure of eukaryotic flagella in a quiescent state revealed by cryo-electron tomography,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 10.1073/pnas.0508274102, published online before print October 24, 2005. These are just a few of the reasons students should be allowed to hear about intelligent design.  Darwin?  He was just an old Victorian who didn’t know anything about this.  If he had, he might have decided to stick with his training to become a country parson after all.  This is the 21st century, folks: the age of nanomachinery and biophysics.  Enjoy!(Visited 6 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

AgriClear and United Producers Inc. announce strategic alliance

first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest AgriClear, North America’s premier online cattle transaction and payment platform, together with United Producers Inc. (UPI), one of North America’s largest farmer owned and operated livestock marketing cooperatives, today announced a collaborative agreement to benefit livestock farmers across the Midwest. UPI will now utilize AgriClear as its digital marketing solution for online cattle transactions, which will bring innovative livestock marketing technology to current and future UPI members.“We’re very excited to partner with UPI to power a unique, modern solution for the cattle industry. The combination of UPI’s marketing expertise, vast network and commitment to evolving technology to meet member needs, along with AgriClear’s leading-edge cattle trading platform, is an offering unlike any other in North America,” said Nevil Speer, Vice President of U.S. Operations, AgriClear. “This alliance provides cattle buyers and sellers with full transparency throughout the payment process along with a mechanism to trade cattle based on their true value.”“UPI prides itself on providing leading-edge marketing solutions that provide real value to producers. Joining forces with AgriClear to expand the package of services available to UPI cattle producers is a natural evolution of our growing spectrum of options for producers of all sizes throughout the Midwest and beyond.  We are constantly seeking to provide producers with a competitive advantage in an ever-changing and evolving marketplace directly or through innovative partnerships,” said Mike Bumgarner, President & CEO UPI.To learn more about cattle marketing on your terms, visit www.agriclear.com and follow AgriClear on Twitter:@AgriClearTo learn more about UPI, visit www.uproducers.com.last_img read more

Free Webinar: Post-Production Workflows in 6K

first_imgAs the professional video production industry moves toward higher resolution shooting, how can you ensure that your workflow is bulletproof?[Above image from Red.com]An upcoming webinar by our friends at ProVideoCoalition will address one of the big challenges currently facing video pros, how high resolution video effects their post-production workflows. How should this footage (and large file sizes!) be managed in post? How can you ensure seamless editing of 4K and 6K video files? In what format/codec/frame size do you deliver the final video files?The free webinar from PVC will be on November 17th at 11 am PST and hosted by post-production engineer Jeff Brue, who recently worked as a post engineer on David Fincher’s Gone Girl.As many people now know, David Fincher has been a proponent of the use of advancing technology in film for many years now. His advocacy for digital film through the use of RED cameras is well documented. Continuing on this pursuant path of new technology, Fincher decided to have his newest film Gone Girl cut completely on Adobe Premiere CC.Fincher charged longtime collaborators Academy Award winning editor Kirk Baxter and assistant editor Tyler Nelson with editing Gone Girl in Premiere Pro CC. Kirk and Tyler quickly began to work closely with Post-Production Supervisor Peter Mavromates and Post-Production Engineer Jeff Brue, the main speaker in the PVC Webinar.To test this type of workflow Fincher and the post-production crew above ran a test run for a Calvin Klein ad in order to fully understand the workflow. You can see that ad below.Once this was done, Fincher and his team set out to find out what it would take to use this same workflow on a feature film project. PVC webinar speaker Jeff Brue was in charge of developing and designing the a storage system to handle the vast amounts of data produced from the 6K footage.Jeff Brue said in an article from the Adobe Premiere Pro Weblog, “Our goal was to get as many iterations as possible of the opticals and visual effects in a given period of time to make the story as strong as we could,” explains Brue. “The ask was for nothing less than perfection, which pushed us to do better. When it came down to it, Adobe Premiere Pro CC was faster than anything else in the market. That speed meant more iterations, more time to work on a shot, and more time to perfect an edit.”For the Webinar Jeff Brue along with PVC’s own Woody Woodhall will go over the production pipeline used on Gone Girl from the RED Dragon 6K footage to Adobe Premiere Pro CC and finally to the Intel Xeon HP Z Workstation’s that use NVIDIA Quadro GPU’s.If interested click the PVC ad above to register for the webinar or you can go to PVC’s website and register.Light Iron 6K DI DiaryFilmmakers and video pros working on large scale productions should be interested in a recent profile by Light Iron, digital intermediate specialists. In the following video Light Iron CEO, Michael Cioni, demonstrates a post production workflow for 6K RED footage. Loads of useful tips here:last_img read more

Baby girl gets Aadhaar number in 6 minutes of birth

first_imgBhavna Santosh Jadhav is just a few minutes old, but she already has in place her vital identity proof — the Aadhaar number.The girl’s parents enrolled for her Aadhaar number which they received in just six minutes after her birth today, in one of the rare cases of getting the vital identity proof within minutes of being born.The child was born at the Osmanabad district women’s hospital at 12.03 p.m. today.At 12.09 p.m., her parents got her online birth certificate and the Aadhaar number from the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI), district collector Radhakrushna Game said.“It’s a proud moment for Osmanabad. We will soon register all children for Aadhaar and link them with their parents’ Aadhaar cards,” he said.The newborn and her mother were doing fine, the hospital’s civil surgeon, Dr. Eknath Male, said.Around 1,300 children born at the Osmanabad district women’s hospital in the last one year have got their Aadhaar numbers, he claimed.last_img read more

Wimbledon 2011: Sweet Serena back to her winning ways

first_imgSerena Williams usually leaves her opponents in tears on the tennis court.Serena Williams waves to the crowd after defeating Aravane Rezai in their first round of the Wimbledon on Tuesday. APOn Tuesday it was the American’s turn to bury her face in the towel after she outlasted Aravane Rezai 6-3, 3-6, 6-1 in the first round of Wimbledon.Tuesday happened to be the longest day of the year and it also marked Serena’s return to action after a long break lasting almost one year.From a freak foot injury at a hotel in Munich last year when she stepped on broken glass at a restaurant to pulmonary embolism and then emergency surgery to clear a haematoma in her stomach, Serena has survived one crisis after another.So when the defending champion stepped out to resume battle, there was the huge burden on Serena to prove to critics and herself she was still capable of playing top-flight tennis.”It definitely hit me at the end of the match today. I’m not a crier, so I don’t know. I think it was something in my eyes at one point, but it definitely was emotional for me,” said Serena at the postmatch conference.But the sailing was not as smooth for former No. 1 Jelena Jankovic as Spaniard Maria Jose Martinez Sanchez knocked out 15th seed.Despite losing the first set, Martinez Sanchez appeared in charge from the start, running her 26-year-old opponent all over the court with well placed shots to take the match 5-7, 6-4, 6-3.advertisementThe 15th-seeded Serb, who reached the fourth round at the All England Club last year, lost in the first round at a Grand Slam tournament for the first time since 2005. Her best showing at Wimbledon is making the fourth round, which she has done four times.As one who usually likes to dress bold and beautiful, the classic white outfit which Serena wore was a clear reflection of how badly she wanted to find the winning note again. Champion here in 2002 and 2003 and then in 2009 and 2010, for sheer longevity Serena has been a revelation on the well-manicured grass courts in the famous suburb southwest of London.There were moments of uncertainty against a tricky French opponent before Serena dug into her vast repertoire to hit hard serves, crisp forehands and ensured she could win points at the net as well.The first game lasted 10 minutes as the two players tried to test each other. Rezai was waiting for the weaker second serve to jump on and may have fancied her chances. But once Serena changed gears, it was hard to make out she had been away from competitive tennis.Asked about how and why she decided to return to tennis, Serena said: “I was healthy when I came here. I got a healthy report from the doctor and you know, I love Wimbledon.I love playing tennis and I love being part of the competition,” she said.When Serena departed from Wimbledon last year, she was holding the winner’s Venus Rosewater Dish. At that time, she was also the World No. 1.Now, Serena is trying to come back hard and shake off the rust.In other matches, surprise 2010 Wimbledon semi-finalists Tsvetana Pironkova of Bulgaria and Czech Petra Kvitova eased through their opening matches on Tuesday.Kvitova dispatched America’s Alexa Glatch 6-2, 6-2 and Pironkova soon followed with a 6-2, 6-1 win over Italian Camila Giorgi.World number one Caroline Wozniacki raced into the second round as she beat Spain’s Arantxa Parra Santonja 6- 2, 6- 1 on Tuesday.Wozniacki took just 59 minutes to demolish the world number 105. Fourth seed Victoria Azarenka secured a place in the second round without completing her rain-delayed match against Slovakia’s Magdalena Rybarikova, who retired injured.- With inputs from agenciesResultsMen’s singles 1st roundViktor Troicki (SER x13) bt Maximo Gonzalez (ARG) 3-6, 6-0, 7-6(3), 6-3; Roger Federer (SUI x3) bt Mikhail Kukushkin (KAZ) 7-6(2), 6-4, 6-2; Bernard Tomic (AUS) bt Nikolay Davydenko (RUS x29) 7-5, 6-3, 7-5; Fernando Verdasco (ESP x21) bt Radek Stepanek (CZE) 2-6, 4-6, 6-3, 7-6(6), 9-7; Ivan Ljubicic (CRO) bt Marin Cilic (Croatia x27) 7-6(2), 3-6, 6-3, 6-4; Juan Martin Del Potro (ARG x24) bt Flavio Cipolla (ITA) 6-1, 6-4, 6-3; Andy Roddick (US x8) bt Andreas Beck (GER) 6-4, 7-6(6), 6-3; Ivo Karlovic (CRO) beat Janko Tipsarevic (SER x23) 7-5, 3-1 retired; Novak Djokovic (SRB x2) bt Jeremy Chardy (FRA) 6-4, 6-1, 6-1Women’s singles 1st roundCaroline Wozniacki (DEN x1) bt Arantxa Parra Santonja (ESP) 6-2, 6-1; Virginie Razzano (FRA) bt Sania Mirza (IND) 7-6 (7/4), 2-6, 6-3; Serena Williams (USA x7) bt Aravane Rezai (FRA) 6-3, 3-6, 6-1; Andrea Petkovic (GER x11) bt Stephanie Foretz (FRA) 6-3, 6-4; Anastasia Pavlyuchenkova (RUS x14) bt Lesya Tsurenko (UKR) 6-4, 7-6 (7/3); Daniela Hantuchova (SVK x25) bt Vitalia Diatchenko (RUS) 4-6, 7-6 (7/5), 6-3; Victoria Azarenka (BLR x4) bt Magdalena Rybarikova (SVK) 6-4, 3-2 – retired; Petra Kvitova (CZE x8) bt Alexa Glatch (USA) 6-2, 6-2; Maria Jose Martinez (ESP) bt Jelena Jankovic (SRB x15) 5-7, 6-4, 6-3.advertisementFor more news on India, click here.For more news on Business, click here.For more news on Movies, click here.For more news on Sports, click here.last_img read more

USPS Reports Further Losses in Q3 2016

first_imgAnother quarter, another grim earnings statement from the Postal Service. As of now, savings afforded to publishers by the removal of the exigency surcharge have not translated to an increase in shipping. While overall volume remained stable, the periodicals class dipped 3.8 percent decline in the number of pieces shipped, to 1.43 billion, mirroring recent quarterly declines. Despite “encouraging numbers,” postmaster general Megan J. Brennan cautioned that the agency’s fiscal situation remains bleak. Regardless, renewed calls for a financial life preserver, perhaps in the form of a new surcharge or rate hike, will surely draw the attention of the publishing industry. The USPS argues that it needs around $12 billion in relief in order to return to solvency. Given the scope of the agency’s losses — $5.1 billion last year, and $5.5 billion the year before — those figures are difficult to dispute. Operating revenue saw another slight increase, to $16.64 billion (up 0.7 percent over last year), but the bump wasn’t nearly enough to offset a 12.4 percent increase in operating expenses and the termination of the exigency surcharge — a 4.3 percent premium which had applied to all classes of mail before expiring in April. The loss of the surcharge is expected to hurt USPS revenues by nearly $2 billion each year, according to the agency. “Net losses continue to mount,” Brennan said in a prepared statement. “Our results in the quarter further underscore the need for legislative reform that provides the organization with greater financial stability.” It’s the 41st consecutive quarter in which less periodicals were shipped than in the corresponding period the year before, and overall volume in the periodicals class has fallen 37.8 percent from a quarterly high of 2.3 billion in the third quarter of 2006. USPS chief finanical officer Joseph Corbett blamed lackluster revenue growth in the face of mounting losses on the termination of the exigency surcharge, which he termed a “mandated price reduction” in a statement. The Postal Service itself estimates that it lost $450 million during the quarter as a result of the surcharge’s expiration, still not nearly enough to approach profitability. “They have to understand that it’s a different age,” Cregan told Folio: in April, at the time the exigency surcharge was rolled back. “They’re not the only game in town anymore, and they have to improve their customer relations and understand that we — that is, the MPA — are their customers.” The agency posted a net loss of $1.57 billion for the third quarter of its fiscal year (April 1 to June 30), more than double the $586 million loss recorded over the same period in 2015. But representatives for the publishing industry, like the MPA’s EVP of government affairs, James Cregan, argue that the Postal Service needs to retain its clients more than it needs legislative assistance.last_img read more

Boeing pledges 100M to families of those killed in 737 Max 8

first_img 49 Photos Share your voice The official causes of the crashes, which appear to be similar, are still under study. Investigation teams in Indonesia and Ethiopia are focusing on faulty sensors and a flight control system designed to push the nose down in the air. Boeing says it has completed the necessary update for review by the FAA. But as of now, the agency has not said when that will happen.”We at Boeing are sorry for the tragic loss of lives in both of these accidents and these lives lost will continue to weigh heavily on our hearts and on our minds for years to come,” said Dennis Muilenburg, Boeing CEO, in a statement. “The families and loved ones of those on board have our deepest sympathies, and we hope this initial outreach can help bring them comfort.” Boeing Tour a B-17 and other aircraft at the Palm Springs Air Museum Boeing’s 737 Max 8 is grounded after two crashes that killed 346 people. Boeing Boeing will spend $100 million in the coming years to aid the families affected by two 737 Max 8 plane crashes. The planes have been grounded since March following the crashes, which left 346 people dead. The company said the funds will address “family and community needs” and support “education, hardship and living expenses for impacted families, community programs and economic development in impacted communities.” Boeing will work with local governments and non-profit organizations to carry out the aid. The first 737 Max 8 crash occured Oct. 29, when Lion Air flight 610 crashed in the Java Sea 13 minutes after takeoff from Jakarta, Indonesia, killing 189 people. Then, on March 10, Ethiopian Airlines flight 302 departed Addis Ababa Bole International Airport bound for Nairobi, Kenya. Just after takeoff, the pilot radioed a distress call and was given immediate clearance to return and land. But before the crew could make it back, the aircraft crashed 40 miles from the airport at 8:44 a.m., six minutes after it left the runway.center_img 0 Tech Industry null Tagslast_img read more

Dr Reddys leads Indian charge of 130 billion Chinese pharma market stocks

first_imgRaghavendra NDr Reddy’s Laboratories is leading an Indian charge of the $130 billion Chinese pharma market, which is the world’s second largest. The likely liberalisation of the market by the Chinese regulator CFDA will benefit Indian pharma companies that have a solid presence in China, which is the world’s second largest pharma market, a report by Edelweiss Group says.Dr Reddy’s, which maintains a robust presence in China through a joint venture, is evolving a strategic plan to increase its revenue from the current $100 million. The company plans to achieve this by introducing new products and including more segments.The market has responded positively to the report with pharma stocks continuing their strong rally in the National Stock Exchange (NSE). Nifty Pharma sectoral benchmark hit a high of 9,278.70 after opening at 9,193.30. The index that benefited from the strong showing of Glenmark, Lupin and Aurobindo Pharma closed at about 9,263, up about 83 points or 0.91 per cent. Dr Reddy’s surged to an intraday high of 2792.55 from the previous close of 2765.20 to close 4.80 or 0.17 per cent up at 2,770.The company will strengthen its presence by scaling up the joint venture business and increasing the number of “dossier submissions and entries into new therapeutic areas,” MV Ramana, CEO, branded markets (India and emerging markets) of Dr Reddy’s, told Financial Express. According to Edelweiss, Dr Reddy’s, the largest foreign player in China, is poised to benefit from regulatory changes in the country. Dr Reddy’s plans to launch about 60 products and improve revenue significantly over the next seven to eight years, according to the report. PixabayThe company’s strong local partnerships have helped it commercialise some of the imported brands, the report says. The company’s revenue in FY18 was $100 million, with the help of its Canada-based joint venture Kunshan Rotam Reddy.”The size and growth of the market, our long presence and also the recent changes in China’s regulatory framework make this an attractive space for Dr Reddy’s. In terms of market size and expanded generic opportunity, China is the second largest pharma market with $130 billion in size, and generics form 65 per cent of the hospital market. About 22 per cent of the market is with off-patent innovators. While shortening the market access and reimbursement timelines for innovative drugs, China intends to replace the off-patent innovators with high-quality generics that opens up this share of the market to generic firms,” Ramana said.Dr Reddy’s US/EU portfolio mostly comply with Chinese regulations, while additional China-specific studies might be required in the case of some. “While in the past five years, we have had some good pipeline of filings, the plan is to scale this up and file a good number of dossiers in next few years,” he said.The Edelweiss report states that a growing Chinese pharma market and a relaxed Chinese drug regulator, CFDA, are likely to attract many Indian generic players. The relaxed norms may allow Indian companies to file their USFDA-approved products in China and get CFDA approval within months in the normal course. Among the drugs in demand, the most prominent are those for obesity, diabetes, respiratory illness and cancer.”While the regulations have been aligned with International Council of Harmonisation (ICH), there are China-specific requirements, which could pose challenges. Dr Reddy’s will continue to work to build strong regulatory capability and build on our experience to increase the probability of success for any new filing,” the report quoted Ramana as saying.last_img read more

Barry Blumberg Joins Mammoth Media as Chief Content Officer

first_imgMammoth Media, a mobile entertainment-app startup, hired former Defy Media exec Barry Blumberg as its chief content officer.In addition, Mammoth said it has added entertainment veteran Sandy Grushow as a strategic adviser and promoted Talia Kocar to VP of content. The appointments come after L.A.-based Mammoth Media announced $13 million in funding led by Greylock Partners.Mammoth is the studio behind story-sharing app Yarn and Wishbone, a tap-to-vote social networking app that lets users generate polls and side-by-side comparisons.Blumberg officially started at the company on Feb. 14, reporting to Mammoth Media CEO and co-founder Benoit Vatere. In his new role, Blumberg will be responsible for all content produced across existing and developing platforms.“I have loved the digital space because of the more direct connection between a diverse array of creators and their audiences,” Blumberg commented. “Nowhere is this more prevalent than in mobile, and I’m tremendously excited by the prospects for this at Mammoth Media.” Most recently Blumberg served as Defy Media’s CCO before departing a year ago. At Defy, he was involved in the creation and expansion of the Smosh comedy brand, and also headed the company’s programming strategy for brands including Clevver, AWE me, and Screen Junkies. He had joined the company with the 2013 merger of Break Media and Alloy Digital. Prior to helping establish Alloy Digital in 2006, Blumberg was president of Walt Disney Television Animation.Kocar, who has been with Mammoth Media since its inception was previously was director of content and community, will work with Blumberg to manage and oversee the editorial and social growth of the company’s apps and businesses. Mammoth was officially founded in 2015, after spinning out of tech incubator Science Inc.The company has tapped Grushow, CEO of investment and consulting firm Phase Two Media, with an eye on collaborating with Hollywood studios and creative execs. Grushow spent nearly 25 years at the Fox Entertainment Group, including six years as chairman overseeing both Fox’s broadcast network and television studio. Popular on Variety center_img ×Actors Reveal Their Favorite Disney PrincessesSeveral actors, like Daisy Ridley, Awkwafina, Jeff Goldblum and Gina Rodriguez, reveal their favorite Disney princesses. Rapunzel, Mulan, Ariel,Tiana, Sleeping Beauty and Jasmine all got some love from the Disney stars.More VideosVolume 0%Press shift question mark to access a list of keyboard shortcutsKeyboard Shortcutsplay/pauseincrease volumedecrease volumeseek forwardsseek backwardstoggle captionstoggle fullscreenmute/unmuteseek to %SPACE↑↓→←cfm0-9Next UpJennifer Lopez Shares How She Became a Mogul04:350.5x1x1.25×1.5x2xLive00:0002:1502:15last_img read more