Africa is moving towards a new era ofcheap and reliable broadband connectivity.(Image: Seacom) MEDIA CONTACTS • Pynee ChettyMedia LiaisonTelkom SA Limited+27 12 311 5247 or +27 82 857 5141chettPR2@telkom.co.zaBongani NkosiThe Eastern Africa Submarine Cable System (Eassy) hit South African shores on 15 February, signalling a significant development in information infrastructure on the continent. It was delivered by the Ile de Batz cable-laying vessel.Eassy’s arrival in the country marked the start of the final phase of installation of the 10 000km high-capacity undersea cable. It will run from Mtunzini in northern KwaZulu-Natal to Port Sudan in the Red Sea to boost internet connectivity in 21 African countries.It will connect the 21 countries to each other and to the rest of the world, providing them with high-speed internet and other international communications services. Eassy will have landing stations in Djibouti, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Comoros and Madagascar – in addition to Mozambique, South Africa and Sudan where it has already been installed.The project started in 2003 and is due to be up and running by August 2010.With the capacity of 1.4 Terabytes (Tb) per second, Eassy will rival Seacom, a 600m cable that connects Africa with Europe and India and offers bandwidth speed of 1.28Tb per second.All service providers will have equal access to the cable and a uniform bandwidth price.Eassy will ensure that Africa no longer has to rely on expensive international satellite systems for internet connectivity and other data services.It will also service at least 10 landlocked countries in Africa. “An extensive backhaul system linking landlocked countries to the coastal countries has been developed and is in various stages of completion,” according to a statement by Alphonzo Samuels, managing executive for wholesale services at Telkom – one of four South African partners in the project.Samuels said submarine cables were more advanced than satellite systems as they have superior transmission quality and capacity, considerably fewer delays, access to the global optical fibre network, lower unit costs, no electromagnetic interference and greater resistance to adverse weather conditions.“However, activities such as fishing and anchoring, ocean drilling, fish bites and earthquakes constitute some of the commonly known submarine cable hazards,” he added.But various measures have been put in place protect Eassy. “These include conducting ocean bed surveys to select the safest undersea routes; burying the cable in sand where possible, especially at the shallow end; avoiding heavy shipping lanes when approaching landing points; selecting safe beaches, bearing in mind that later beach erosion could expose cables; and designing the shortest land cable route for maximum security,” Samuels said.Eassy has also been designed to last well over 25 years. “It must be emphasised, though, that in the event of submarine cable service interruptions, every attempt is always made to expedite customer services,” he said.Boost for TelkomTelkom is upbeat about the implications of the Eassy project, which is one of its key cable investments. It’s a significant step towards establishing a Telkom fibre-ring around Africa, the telecommunication provider said.“Eassy further increases the robustness of Telkom’s international bandwidth offerings and portfolio. Together with other undersea cables and land-based fibre routes, Eassy creates redundant fibre access prospects into East Africa,” Samuels said.“Redundancy means that we have duplicated equipment at the cable stations, duplicated power converters, generators … therefore, if a single piece of equipment should fail, we have another piece of equipment standing by to take its place.”Telkom’s other cable investments are Columbus3 – providing a link to Southeast Asia, the Middle East and Western Europe; the SAT3/WASC/SAFE – connecting South Africa to West Africa and the Far East; and EIG – the Europe-India Gateway.MTN, Eassy’s largest private operator investor, said the cable’s bandwidth capacity will help it improve its services for users in South Africa, Swaziland, Namibia, Botswana, Zambia, Uganda, Rwanda and Kenya.“MTN’s capital investment of U$40.3-million [R310.5-million] in Eassy came in addition to the investments made by the company in similar ventures such as the Europe-India Gateway, SAT-3, Main-1 and the West Africa Cable System,” according to a statement by Trevor Martins, MTN Eassy management committee chairperson.“The increased bandwidth that will be available as a result of our investments in these submarine networks will capacitate both these ISPs [internet service providers] and our mobile operations in markets largely serviced by costly satellite bandwidth, thus enabling MTN to open up large-scale access to international broadband to our valued customers,” Martins said.Other operators that have invested in Eassy include South Africa’s Neotel and Vodacom, India’s Bharti Airtel Limited, the Botswana Telecommunications Corporation, Dalkom Somalia, Zambia Telecommunications Company, Zanzibar Telecom and Uganda Telecom.Healthy competitionVodacom, a leading cellular network in South Africa, halved its broadband rates in early February 2010 due to “the increasing competition between undersea cable providers, which in turn creates a sustainable competitive international bandwidth market in South Africa”.The reduction was made possible by the 2009 launch of the Seacom cable, which competes directly with SAT-3 and team cables in the Indian Ocean.Vodacom and all the other service providers are expected to further cut their rates when Eassy becomes operational.“Ultimately, we believe that Eassy will go a long way towards increasing Africa’s bandwidth capacity, affordability and create increased diversity and fibre redundancy between South Africa and Europe as well as within East Africa,” Samuels said.
dana oshiro Tags:#Blogging#web A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting If this tells us anything, it’s that in this new environment of conversational media, many have abandoned their blogs for less labor intensive forms of expression. We just hope the company has some form of compensation for contributors. It’ll be tough convincing bloggers to contribute posts and patch holes in what might already be a sinking ship. Nevertheless, if you’re the type of person who likes a challenge and you’ve got the energy to increase your posts, you can apply for the program on Technorati’s contact page. Related Posts 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Market Once considered the leading search engine for blog-related queries, Technorati has fallen by the wayside in recent years. With no known strategy around new forms of media, the company quickly began to lose ground as Twitter and other conversational tools grew in popularity. In early July when the company launched Twittorati, it already seemed too late. However, in a surprising move, Technorati is switching gears again with an invitation for writers to join the Technorati blogging network. In an email to members, the company is encouraging users to become Technorati writers. While it may seem like a natural fit for members to write about their blogging experiences, the company appears to want to expand beyond that by offering members a chance to state their favorite topics and interest areas. While it seems like a strange and cannibalistic move, it will be an uphill battle to persuade regular bloggers to double up on their posts and contribute. Earlier in the email Technorati addresses why member authority has fallen across the site. The company explains, “As our intent is to measure the influence and attention received on an ongoing basis, we stopped counting static blogroll links, and these links have now aged out of the authority calculations.” Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic…
The scorecards would include an estimate of annual energy consumption based on features such as lighting, insulation and HVAC equipment. Homeowners also would get recommendations for efficiency upgrades, such as better water heaters, and more efficient heating and cooling equipment.Massachusetts has been ranked best in the country for energy efficiency programs for the past seven years by the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy. “Upon passage of this legislation, [it] would be the first state in the country to require home energy scorecards for residential homes to be made available to potential homebuyers,” the governor’s office said.Should the bill pass, the state’s Department of Energy Resources would design the scorecard and develop standards and training for providers. RELATED ARTICLES States Step Up for Progress on Efficiency StandardsRemodeling for Energy EfficiencyHow is a Home’s HERS Index Calculated?A Better Way to Encourage Efficient New Homes The governor of Massachusetts has introduced legislation that by 2021 would require that people selling their homes provide potential buyers with home energy performance ratings. The Boston Globe said the measure filed by Gov. Charlie Baker earlier in the week would be the first of its kind in the U.S.At the outset, the bill would require energy raters such as Mass Save to provide homeowners with a home energy scorecard when they have a free assessment done. Beginning in 2021, anyone selling a building with one to four residential units, and listing the property for sale publicly, would be required to provide potential buyers with energy performance ratings.The governor’s office said in a press release the legislation is part of the state’s effort to lower greenhouse gas emissions and help state residents save money. Real estate group not so thrilledThe Massachusetts Association of Realtors is opposed to the legislation. In a prepared statement, Rita Coffey, the association’s president and the general manager of a Century 21 agency in Weymouth, said, “Realtors are for energy efficiency but the mandatory nature of this bill won’t do what its supporters hope it will. The key to increasing energy efficiency in Massachusetts is through incentives, not mandates.”The association said the measure would “really stick it to” homeowners with low and moderate incomes because they might not have the money to make energy-related improvements to their homes before a sale. Lower energy scores could mean lower values.Home prices are rising to their highest levels on record in Massachusetts, in part because of a declining inventory of homes for sale. The number of homes for sale has declined in 72 of the last 73 months, and the association says getting a mandatory home energy audit before a house could be listed for sale would worsen the situation.“Massachusetts is starved for housing inventory,” Coffey’s statement said. “In fact, it’s so severe, that we’re seeing the lowest number of homes on the market since we’ve been tracking this data. This scarcity is increasing home prices to a point where many first-time homebuyers are being forced out of the market and deciding to look in other states to buy a home.”
The London Olympics disappointment behind him, Indian boxing star Vijender Singh is all set to pack a heavier punch from next year, when he goes up a division to light heavyweight (81kg) for the World Championships.”There is nothing much this year. I will be participating in the World championship in the 81kg category,” Vijender, who lost in the quarterfinals of the London Games, said.The strapping six-footer had a hugely successful stint in the 75kg division, bagging his and the country’s first Olympic and World Championships boxing medal (a bronze in both events) in the category.The 26-year-old also went on to become the world number one in 75kg after the World Championships medal in 2009.Meanwhile, the Haryana-lad would give the Nationals a miss for the fifth year running. But he would be there on the sidelines of the tournament, scheduled in Hyderabad from October 30 to November 4, to catch the action live.”No, I am not participating in the Nationals though I will certainly be going to watch bouts. I will be going there for the opening ceremony,” he said.Vijender was in the city to shoot for a campaign by People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) against confinement of animals by circuses.
DefinitionShoulder arthroscopy is surgery that uses a tiny camera called an arthroscope to examine or repair the tissues inside or around your shoulder joint. The arthroscope is inserted through a small incision (cut) in your skin.Alternative Names SLAP repair; Acromioplasty; Bankart; Shoulder repair; Shoulder surgeryDescriptionThe rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that cover your shoulder joint. These muscles and tendons hold your arm in your ball and socket shoulder joint, and they help you move your shoulder in different directions. The tendons in the rotator cuff can tear when they are overused or injured.Most people receive general anesthesia before this surgery. This means you will be unconscious and unable to feel pain. Or, you may have regional anesthesia. Your arm and shoulder area will be numbed so that you do not feel any pain in this area. If you receive regional anesthesia, you will also be given medicine to make you very sleepy during the operation.First, your surgeon will examine your shoulder with the arthroscope. Your surgeon will:Insert the arthroscope into your shoulder through a small incision. The arthroscope is connected to a video monitor in the operating room.Inspect all the tissues of your shoulder joint and the area above the joint — the cartilage, bones, tendons, and ligaments.Repair any damaged tissues. To do this, your surgeon will make 1- 3 more small incisions and insert other instruments through them. A tear in a muscle, tendon, or cartilage will be fixed. Damaged tissue may need to be removed.Your surgeon may do one or more of these procedures during your surgery:advertisementRotator cuff repair: The edges of the muscles are brought together. The tendon is attached to the bone with sutures. Small rivets (called suture anchors) are often used to help attach the tendon to the bone. The anchors can be made of metal or plastic. They do not need to be removed after surgery.Surgery for impingement syndrome: Damaged or inflamed tissue is cleaned out in the area above the shoulder joint itself. Your surgeon may also cut a specific ligament, called the coracoacromial ligament, and shave off the under part of a bone. This under part of the bone is called the acromion. The spur can be a cause of inflammation and pain in your shoulder.Surgery for shoulder instability: If you have a torn labrum, the rim of the shoulder joint that is made out of cartilage, your surgeon will repair it. Ligaments that attach to this area will also be repaired. The Bankart lesion is a tear on the labrum in the lower part of the shoulder joint. A SLAP lesion involves the labrum and the ligament on the top part of the shoulder joint.At the end of the surgery using the arthroscope, your incisions will be closed with stitches and covered with a dressing (bandage). Most surgeons take pictures from the video monitor during the procedure to show you what they found and what repairs they made.Your surgeon may need to do open surgery if there is a lot of damage. Open surgery means you will have a large incision so that the surgeon can get directly to your bones and tissues. Open surgery is a more complicated surgery.Why the Procedure Is PerformedArthroscopy may be recommended for these shoulder problems:A torn or damaged cartilage ring (labrum) or ligamentsShoulder instability, where the shoulder joint is loose and slides around too much or becomes dislocated (slips out of the ball and socket joint)A torn or damaged biceps tendonA torn rotator cuffA bone spur or inflammation around the rotator cuffInflammation or damaged lining of the joint. Often this is caused by an illness, such as rheumatoid arthritis.Arthritis of the end of the clavicle (collarbone)Loose tissue need to be removedShoulder impingement syndrome, to make more room for the shoulder to move aroundRisksRisks for any anesthesia are:Allergic reactions to medicinesBreathing problemsThe risks for any surgery are:BleedingInfectionBlood clotRisks of shoulder arthroscopy are:Shoulder stiffnessFailure of the surgery to relieve symptomsFailure of the repair to healWeakness of the shoulderInjury to a blood vessel or nerveBefore the ProcedureAlways tell your health care provider what drugs you are taking, even drugs, supplements, or herbs you bought without a prescription.During the 2 weeks before your surgery:Two weeks before surgery you may be asked to stop taking drugs that make it harder for your blood to clot. These include aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), naproxen (Naprosyn, Aleve), and other drugs.Ask your health care provider which drugs you should still take on the day of your surgery.If you have diabetes, heart disease, or other medical conditions, your surgeon will ask you to see your doctor who treats you for these conditions.Tell your health care provider if you have been drinking a lot of alcohol, more than 1 or 2 drinks a day.If you smoke, try to stop. Ask your health care provider or nurse for help. Smoking can slow down wound and bone healing.Always let your doctor know about any cold, flu, fever, herpes breakout, or other illness you may have before your surgery.On the day of your surgery:advertisementYou will usually be asked not to drink or eat anything for 6- 12 hours before the procedure.Take your drugs your health care provider told you to take with a small sip of water.Your health care provider will tell you when to arrive at the hospital.After the ProcedureRecovery can take anywhere from 1 to 6 months. You will probably have to wear a sling for the first week. If you had a lot of repair done, you may have to wear the sling longer.You may take medicine to control your pain.When you can return to work or play sports will depend on what your surgery involved. It can range from 1 week to several months.For many procedures, especially if a repair is performed, physical therapy may help you regain motion and strength in your shoulder. The length of therapy will depend on the repair that was done.Outlook (Prognosis)Arthroscopy is an alternative to “open” surgery that completely exposes the shoulder joint. Arthroscopy results in less pain and stiffness, fewer complications, shorter (if any) hospital stays, and faster recovery sometimes.If you had repair done, your body still needs time to heal after arthroscopic surgery, just as you would need time to recover from open surgery. Because of this, your recovery time may still be long.Surgery to fix a cartilage tear is usually done to make the shoulder more stable. Many people recover fully, and their shoulder stays stable. But some people may still have shoulder instability after arthroscopic repair.Using arthroscopy for rotator cuff repairs or tendinitis usually relieves the pain, but you may not regain all of your strength.See also:Shoulder surgery – dischargeUsing your shoulder after surgeryReferencesElkousy HA, Edwards TB. Shoulder: Development of skills for shoulder surgery. In: DeLee JC, Drez D Jr, Miller MD, eds. DeLee and Drez’s Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2009:chap 17, section Q.Phillips BB. Recurrent dislocations. In: Canale ST, Beatty JH, eds. Campbells Operative Orthopaedics. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2007:chap 45.Phillips BB. Arthroscopy of the upper extremity. In: Canale ST, Beatty JH, eds. Campbells Operative Orthopaedics. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2007:chap 49.Review Date:6/30/2011Reviewed By:C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery; and Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Medical Director, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, University of Washington, School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.advertisement