One goal in the first and another midway through the second half set up the win for PNG.There were early worrying signs for PNG when strike player Tommy Semmy was taken off the field for some minutes, but PNG surged on to bring home the points.PNG’s Jacob Sabua took on the Solomon Islands backline and stole the ball to dribble into attack and score PNG’s second for a lead of 2-0.The Solomon Islanders rallied and got back in the game when Timothy Bakale caught the defence napping and powered a low ball from the wing into the nets.The pressure was showing as PNG were given two yellow cards for fouls. But PNG’s backline led by Felix Komolong, who put on a stellar performance, ensured no more points were conceded.
The coronavirus fills the covers of Barcelona one more day. Some newspapers, such as Sports world Y L’Esportiu, they count the competitions that were suspended during this Thursday. SportHowever, there are frequently asked questions these days. If Barça would be the champion to close the competition, who would descend, if next year there would be 22 teams in the First Division, or who would go to the Champions League. While Sports world Y Sport they talk about avalanche cancellations and the “total stop” of the sport: the NBA, the Champions League, Formula 1, Godó … And the imminent announcement of the postponement of Barça-Naples and the Champions League.
It’s too early to present Duterte’s ‘legacy’ – Lacson Redemption is sweet for Ginebra, Scottie Thompson Thunder’s Adams, Roberson should benefit from superstar trio The Scores:LETRAN 84 – Quinto 27, Nambatac 19, Calvo 16, Balanza 8, Gedaria 5, Vacaro 4, Balagasay 2, Taladua 2, Mandreza 1, Bernabe 0.EAC 78 – Onwubere 25, Munsayac 15, Bautista 10, Diego 10, Garcia 6, Bugarin 6, I. Mendoza 2, Tampoc 2, J. Mendoza 2, Pascua 0, Corilla 0, Neri 0.Quarters: 23-15, 50-34, 72-58, 84-78. Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard PLAY LIST 02:14Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard02:56NCRPO pledges to donate P3.5 million to victims of Taal eruption00:56Heavy rain brings some relief in Australia02:37Calm moments allow Taal folks some respite03:23Negosyo sa Tagaytay City, bagsak sa pag-aalboroto ng Bulkang Taal01:13Christian Standhardinger wins PBA Best Player award LATEST STORIES “We’ve said a lot, but at the end of the day, it’s all over. We tried to move on. The coaches and the players were frustrated, but we just turned it to a positive and it went good for us,” said coach Jeff Napa.Bong Quinto fired a career-high 27 points, seven rebounds, and two assists, while Rey Nambatac got 19 markers, nine boards, and three dimes as the former Squires dedicated the game to their late coach Bob Lotuaco, who died last Wednesday.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSRedemption is sweet for Ginebra, Scottie ThompsonSPORTSMayweather beats Pacquiao, Canelo for ‘Fighter of the Decade’SPORTSFederer blasts lack of communication on Australian Open smogJP Calvo also added 16 points, eight rebounds, three assists, and two steals for Letran.Napa is just satisfied that with three more games remaining in the Knights’ eliminations schedule, their fate will largely be in their hands. Margot Robbie talks about filming ‘Bombshell’s’ disturbing sexual harassment scene Mos Burger to open in Manila; teases with a pop-up DAY6 is for everybody How to help the Taal evacuees For the complete collegiate sports coverage including scores, schedules and stories, visit Inquirer Varsity. OSG plea to revoke ABS-CBN franchise ‘a duplicitous move’ – Lacson “Our main goal is to make it to the Final Four. We have a tough stretch ahead of us, but it’s in our hands on how we’ll handle that,” he said. “I still believe in my players that we’re willing to come out despite the worst loss we got against San Sebastian.”Letran lost hold of a 21-point lead in the second quarter, 50-29, as EAC staged a late fightback, cutting the deficit to as low as four, 82-78, in the final 12.3 seconds.Calvo, though, slammed the door shut on the Generals with a pair of freebies as Sidney Onwubere missed his late trey.The Generals are in danger of missing the playoffs as they succumbed to their third straight defeat to fall to 6-9.Onwubere carried EAC with 25 points, nine rebounds, and five assists, while Francis Munsayac got 15 markers, two boards, and two dimes.ADVERTISEMENT MOST READ Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next In ‘Jojo Rabbit,’ Comedy and Drama Collide Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Jake says relationship with Shaina ‘goes beyond physical attraction’ Photo by Tristan Tamayo/ INQUIRER.netLetran survived a gallant stand from Emilio Aguinaldo College to score the 84-78 victory Friday in the NCAA Season 93 men’s basketball tournament at Filoil Flying V Centre in San Juan.Coming off their 95-64 loss to San Sebastian last Tuesday, the Knights rebounded with the superb showing against the Generals to move up the standings at 8-7.ADVERTISEMENT View comments
Photo from ASEAN Basketball LeagueSTA. ROSA — San Miguel Alab Pilipinas may have pulled off the win, but coach Jimmy Alapag couldn’t help but be in awe of Mono Vampire guard Jason Brickman.“I’ve been a big fan of Brickman for a long time,” he said of the Fil-American playmaker.ADVERTISEMENT Lights inside SMX hall flicker as Duterte rants vs Ayala, Pangilinan anew In fight vs corruption, Duterte now points to Ayala, MVP companies as ‘big fish’ Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard PLAY LIST 02:14Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard02:56NCRPO pledges to donate P3.5 million to victims of Taal eruption00:56Heavy rain brings some relief in Australia02:37Calm moments allow Taal folks some respite03:23Negosyo sa Tagaytay City, bagsak sa pag-aalboroto ng Bulkang Taal01:13Christian Standhardinger wins PBA Best Player award Volcano watch: Island fissures steaming, lake water receding “I’ll try to watch the tape and figure out how to try and limit him. His 14 assists accounted for easily 30 points. We have to do a much better job,” he said. “I’ve been a big fan of him but I’m gonna try not to big of a fan until this series is over.”Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Green group flags ‘overkill’ use of plastic banderitas in Manila Sto. Niño feast “This season, I’ve had an opportunity to see his game up close and I’m really really impressed. One of the smartest point guards I’ve seen in a long time. For somebody who doesn’t blow you away with athleticism and size, his basketball IQ is off the charts. If you let him pick you apart, he will.”Brickman was one of the reasons why Mono Vampire stayed in the game despite its giant Sam Deguara being hobbled by foul trouble.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSGinebra beats Meralco again to capture PBA Governors’ Cup titleSPORTSAfter winning title, time for LA Tenorio to give back to Batangas folkSPORTSTim Cone, Ginebra set their sights on elusive All-Filipino crownHe finished with 15 points, eight rebounds, 14 assists and five steals, but wasn’t able to finish the game as he suffered from cramps at the 2:48 mark of the fourth quarter.That was one of the breaks Alab got in the game en route to a 143-130 overtime victory on Sunday to take a 1-0 lead in the 2018 ASEAN Basketball League Finals. Still, there’s no doubt in Alapag’s mind how good Brickman is, as he even likened him to an NBA legend.“The first guy that comes to mind is John Stockton. Their build, again having been a point guard my entire career, watching the passes that he makes and seeing the type of seam that he throws them through, it’s a really, really small window and he gets the ball through there. It’s much different than some of the point guards that we’ve seen in the ABL, who are more athletic and might be a little be faster. He beats you with his ability to forward the ball and he throws it with accuracy,” he said.Alapag can confidently say that if Brickman goes to the PBA, there’s no question that he can flourish among some of the region’s best players.“Absolutely, without question, he’d be one of the best point guards in the PBA tomorrow,” he said, giving his stamp of approval to the 28-year-old guard.But for now, Alapag must find ways to limit Brickman’s impact on the floor ahead of Game 2 on Wednesday.ADVERTISEMENT Jo Koy draws ire for cutting through Cebu City traffic with ‘wang-wang’ LATEST STORIES View comments MOST READ Brownlee misses free throw late, redeems self in OT ‘Stop romanticizing Pinoy resilience’ P16.5-M worth of aid provided for Taal Volcano eruption victims — NDRRMC Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Scientists seek rare species survivors amid Australia flames Truck driver killed in Davao del Sur road accident
“We’re really excited to announce this partnership with Mathare United, a Club with great heritage and significance in Kenya’s footballing scene. This is an open deal that stands to be built on incrementally,” OdiBets Country Marketing Manager Dedan Mungai said while unveiling the deal.Mathare had previously had the Ng’ombe brand infront of their jerseys for most of this season, but that has now shifted to the back, marking the side’s turn in financial fortunes as they now have secured two sponsors.“The past few seasons have been particularly successful for the Club both on and off the pitch despite some financing challenges. This sponsorship will certainly give the Club the stability it needs to forge ahead and compete for the KPL title,” Mathare United chairman Bob Munro said.The club started the season without a shirt sponsor after another betting firm Betway opted not to renew their partnership and they faced a tumultuous period financially with players going for months without pay.Mathare United assistant captain Chris Oduor (right) and defender Johnstone Omurwa do the ‘Odi dance’ after the unveiling of their partnership with betting firm Odibets. PHOTO/Mathare UnitedHowever, with the new deal, the club is set to enjoy a period of stability even as they look to quench their trophy thirst that has stretched to a decade.“We believe in the potential of Mathare United, who have proven themselves time and time again to be one of the most dedicated and driven Clubs in the KPL. We are delighted to be the Main Club Partners and wish them every success in the coming seasons,” Mungai further stated.Though they started the season strongly, Mathare have not had a consistent season and they are now placed eighth in the standings with 47 points.However, this is a massive improvement from last season where they survived relegation by the skin of their teeth.Mathare finish their season at home on Sunday when they take on Ulinzi Stars at the Ruaraka Sports Complex.0Shares0000(Visited 14 times, 1 visits today) 0Shares0000OdiBets Country Marketing Manager Dedan Mungai unveils the new sponsorship deal with Mathare United chairman Bob Munro flanked by Mathare assistant captain Chris Oduor and head coach Francis Kimanzi. PHOTO/Mathare UnitedNAIROBI, Kenya, Oct 3 – Mathare United, the 2008 Kenyan Premier League (KPL) champions on Wednesday unveiled a new betting firm, Odiebets, as their new shirt sponsor in a three-year deal worth Sh60mn.Mathare donned the brand for the first time on Sunday when they took on Gor Mahia in Kisumu, but the deal was officially unveiled in Nairobi three days later.
Parenting Support in DonegalParenting today is no easy task. There is no doubt that our children can bring us the greatest joys, but at other times, we can feel like tearing our hair out.We all know the saying “it’s different times we are living in” and with these different times children are facing difficulties and challenges that the generation before them did not encounter. These new challenges facing children bring new challenges for their parents. While there have been many benefits of modern day Ireland and the technology that has accompanied these changes we need also to be aware of the difficulties that our young people are facing.As parents, we all need a toolbag of old and new skills to help us along our Parenting Path. In addition to the advice we can get from the wise old heads of our parents before us, reading books and looking up websites can provide us with very useful information and many new ideas on how to manage the various situations and scenarios we face as modern day parents.Another very effective way of getting the support you need as a parent and filling up your Parenting Toolbag is by attending a Parents Support programme. The Parents’ Plus Programmes are evidenced based programmes that focus on parenting skills that parents have found to be effective.The Programmes are free to parents with a small contribution towards the cost of the Parent’s Manual. The Programmes are being facilitated through the collaboration of Community Services, HSE and Tusla Child and Family Services. They are open to all parents in the community and in addition to focusing on parenting issues the groups also provide parents with a good social network. Parents are given the opportunity to come together and look at the issues they are facing in a relaxed and friendly environment over an eight week period with sessions lasting two hours per week. The Parents Plus Early Years Programme (for parents of children aged 1-5 years) is starting in the Family Resource Centre, Donegal Town next Wednesday 14th October from 10:30 – 12:30. The Parents Plus Children’s Programme (for parents of primary school age children) starts in Carrick Day Care Centre on Tuesday 13th October 7:30 to 9:30pm. Contact Katy at 0749733111 for further information on both these programmes.Places are still available for the Parents Plus Children’s Programme which is due to start in the Lifford/ Clonleigh Resource Centre covering the Lifford, St. Johnston and Carrigans area. Contact Deborah at 074 9148551 ASAP for further information and to reserve a place.To book a place on the Parents Plus Children’s Programme being run in Milford please contact Margaret at 074 9155055. The Programme is open to all parents across the Fanad peninsula.Depending on the level of interest, programmes are scheduled to take place in Letterkenny, Raphoe, and Inishowen after Halloween and anyone interested in these programmes should contact email@example.com .Parenting is a challenge but remember “Life affords no greater responsibility, no greater privilege, than the raising of the next generation”. – C. Everet Koop, M.D. PARENTING PROGRAMMES SET UP ACROSS DONEGAL was last modified: October 7th, 2015 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)
A man who tried to get a front row seat at an Orange Parade in Co Donegal has been fined €100.Letterkenny courthouse.Brian Catterson, appeared before Letterkenny District Court, for being intoxicated at Convoy Main Street on October 11th, 2014. Judge Paul Kelly heard how Catterson,34, was friendly with a number of those taking part in the parade and insisted in getting a better view.But despite being told by Gardai to stand back and lave the area, Catterson, of Rooskey, Convoy, insisted on moving towards the parade.“He was friends with a number of those taking part in the parade. He wanted to get closer to the parade and didn’t go about things the right way,” said Catterson’s solicitor Kiran Dillon.Judge Kelly fined Catterson €100 for being intoxicated.MAN FINED €100 FOR BEING INTOXICATED AT ORANGE PARADE was last modified: June 15th, 2015 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:Brian Cattersonconvoydonegalintoxicated
Avril McMonagle, County Childcare Manager with Alan Gray, Indecon International Economic Consultancy Group going into Leinster House to present the findings and proposals of the national report into childcare supports for working families.A national research report commissioned by Donegal County Childcare has succeeded in prompting a review of national childcare funding schemes for working families. Minister Frances Fitzgerald has openly acknowledged the initiative taken by Donegal County Childcare in taking this proposal forward and has reiterated that the ‘Supporting Working Families – Releasing a brake on economic growth’ report will be central to the Government review.In her comments to the Joint Committee on Health and Children she stated that the cost of childcare is a cutting edge issue for the Irish economy in the years ahead. Avril McMonagle, Manager of Donegal County Childcare, who initiated the research compiled by Indecon International Economic Consultants, is delighted with the organisations success in not only getting this issue to the table, but also by being able to back up a long talked about issue with a statistical analysis and realistically costed solutions.“It just proves that you can talk about an issue as much as you like but it’s only when you can provide workable solutions with a costed price tag that you’ll move beyond talking to yourself.“When developing the research proposal for this work, Donegal Childcare were interested in setting this in the context of not so much the cost of childcare rather parents ability to afford childcare against average earnings in Ireland.“Although this is a national report, we were of course particularly interested in its application to working families in County Donegal – and it was no surprise that this is where evidence was most dismal when applied to our own county.” The group said that low income parents with children under 5 years old are caught in a poverty trap due to the in-affordability of childcare in our county.This is no longer an unfounded statement – it is a proven fact., added the group.Avril said ‘I have long believed that childcare is a fundamental component of economic policy – we need to start developing integrated policy in this area. We may not be able to do everything to solve the problem immediately – but we can do something. It is now a question of pace and scale in terms of the action we must take for working families’.This success of the DCCC led initiative is now evident. DCCC were delighted to be invited to provide a presentation of the main findings of our work to the Joint Oireachtas Committee on Health and Children on 20th February.DCCC were supported by Donegal TD’s Pádraig Mac Lochlainn and Charlie McConalogue at the committee proceedings even though they do not sit on the Health and Children Committee. “We need everyone to both recognise and get behind this issue now to reverse this state of affairs.”Further information on the DCCC Indecon Report (downloadable www.donegalchildcare.com) and its findings and proposals, please do not hesitate to contact the DCCC office on 074 9123442 or contact firstname.lastname@example.orgIf you would like to view DCCC’s presentation to the Joint Committee on Health and Children from the 20th February, please see the link below where DCCC’s presentation features as the first agenda item.http://www.oireachtas.ie/viewdoc.asp?DocID=25554&&CatID=127 DONEGAL COUNTY CHILDCARE SPARK REVIEW OF SUPPORTS FOR WORKING FAMILIES was last modified: March 4th, 2014 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)Tags:Donegal County Childcare
“The day of destiny for Donegal arrives tomorrow; the greatest day in our GAA history with both minor and senior teams contesting All-Ireland Finals. “It still takes a bit of getting used to, it is a phenomenal achievement for the county; but achievements are one thing – at the business end of the season, silverware is what it’s all about.“Such was the dominant, swashbuckling display Jim’s troops delivered against Dublin in the semi final, that it seems a mere formality of beating a team with lesser capabilities. Finals, however, are rarely easily won; even after Donegal’s incredible start to the 2012 final they still had to fight hard in the second half for their ultimate reward. “Indeed that game may play a role this Sunday; while Jim and the players generally don’t look back at the past too much, McGuinness is on record as saying that he felt his players deviated from the plan against Mayo two years ago – he will not want a repeat this time around. The Dublin match was a lesson in patience and in knowing that what has been laid out for them pre-match by the management team will lead them to victory if executed correctly.“Kerry are a lesser team than Dublin but one key difference is that they have a much more competent and tactically aware manager. Eamon Fitzmaurice is a shrewd operator and him and his team deserve respect. Donegal’s big advantage on Sunday is that they know their game plan and will not change; therefore the onus is on Kerry to rise to the challenge and come up with something that could unlock the door. The problem is that many teams have tried but most have failed.“Two things need to happen for Kerry to win – firstly Donegal have to underperform and secondly Kerry have to dig their trenches and get down and dirty. They have to try to repeat what Armagh almost did in August and what Monaghan did last year, beat Donegal at their own game.Michael Murphy and Rory Kavanagh will have a big say in Sunday’s game.“Easier said than done of course – Kerry don’t play as sophisticated a defensive system as Donegal. While they have become better under Fitzmaurice at bringing bodies back and moving from defence to attack quickly, they are not in Donegal’s league at this aspect of play. Four weeks of work leading up to the final doesn’t match up to four years of system and skills repetition under McGuinness. “I attended a wedding in Kerry last week and as usual with the Kingdom, they’re not short on confidence. While most supporters are surprised to see their team in the final, it doesn’t mean they expect anything other than a win. History and tradition counts for a lot down south but it doesn’t matter a thing to Jim and his men. They’ve torn up the script over the past few years, they’ve abolished the notion that the superpowers are untouchable and they’ve taken their place at the top table as if it is their right.“Ryan McHugh’s stunning display last time out will mean that he comes in for close attention and he may well be man-marked. If he is, he could act as a decoy because with so much attention on him it will leave room for the likes of Leo McLoone, Odhran MacNiallais and Christy Toye. Toye will likely get the nod to start and while Patrick McBrearty may well be named on the first fifteen his impact role sub might be utilised again as it was to such devastating effect in the Ulster Final and in the last four encounter with the Dubs.“Paul Durcan will again be a key figure with Kerry loading midfield to try and disrupt his service to Neil Gallagher and on occasion Michael Murphy. The way Kerry use their centre forward, Johnny Buckley, though may cause problems for themselves. Buckley generally drops to midfield and plays as part of a three across the middle with Anthony Maher and David Moran. If he does this on Sunday, he will leave a Donegal man spare to attack from deep – music to the ears of Frank McGlynn or Anthony Thompson. Karl Lacey meanwhile will possibly be assigned marking duties on Declan O’Sullivan should the veteran take to the field.“At the Donegal Daily preview night during the week, Mickey Harte commented on how Dublin thought they had cracked the code with their long range shooting but once this thought manifested itself in their minds the game went away from them. The question is can the code be cracked at all?“Regardless of what Kerry do, or any other team for that matter, if Donegal perform to their maximum or anywhere near it, they win. That leads to its own pressures but McGuinness is a master at having his players in the right frame of mind and for that reason Donegal are favourites on Sunday and rightly so. “It is going to be a hugely emotional and special day for everyone privileged to be there and for the thousands more watching or listening at home or abroad. All we can ask of our boys is to give it their all and we’ll be proud of them. They owe us nothing – but we’ll take a second All Ireland in three years all the same!“Best of luck to both squads – we’re all with you, we’re all behind you. Ádh mór lads.CATHAL MacSUIBHNE’S GAA DIARY: WHY FINALS ARE RARELY EASILY WON was last modified: September 21st, 2014 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)Tags:Cathal MacSuibhnedonegalGAA diary
Three stories touching on philosophy of science were reported recently. They show that simplistic ideas, and even terms deployed, can be misleading. That’s why philosophers still have a role in curbing the pretensions of scientists, and clarifying scientific issues and terms lest policy-makers and the public get wrong ideas.Are all invasive species bad?: We are taught to think that “alien” animals or plants introduced into another country pose a threat. Often they do, but Mark Davis at New Scientist reminded readers that the honeybee was introduced into the Americas. He said, “you may be surprised to learn that only a few per cent of introduced species are harmful.” The really bad cases, like the brown tree snake in Guam that killed off most native birds, and the rabbit in Australia, tend to make the most news and noise, but “many people cling to the idea that non-native species are uniformly undesirable,” he said. The “paradigm” of “invasive species” is changing: Scientific disciplines are often guided at their outset by a few simple ideas. However, as the field matures, participants typically recognise the complexity of their subject and the need for a more nuanced approach. This is what is happening in invasion biology. Philosophers, social scientists and some invasion biologists have challenged the choice of language used to describe non-native species and have argued that conclusions about them sometimes rest more on prejudice than science. Others have criticised the preference for native species as scientifically unsound, arguing that invasive species do not represent a separate category, evolutionarily, biogeographically or ecologically. Others have pointed out flaws in the claim that non-native species are the second-greatest extinction threat after habitiat [sic] destruction. In fact, with the exception of insular environments such as islands and lakes, there are very few examples of extinctions being caused by non-native species.Davis was quick to point out that these ideas do not minimize the need to carefully monitor invasive species. “Make no mistake,” he clarified; “some introduced species have caused great harm.” If a snake on a plane made it to Hawaii, for instance, many native birds would be severely threatened. To Davis, though, this does not justify “message enhancement” (exaggeration) as a scare tactic. Calling species “alien” or “invasive” or “exotic” fails to recognize the global nature of the ecology. “As long as the harm is real,” he said, “it should not be necessary for us to overgeneralise, exaggerate, use incendiary language or misrepresent data in order to attract attention.”Do stem cells exist? Amateur philosophers of science may perk up at a story in Science Daily that asked, “Is ‘stem cell’ concept holding back biology?” The problem, according to Arthur Lander publishing in BioMed Central, is that “after 45 years, we are unable to place the notion of ‘stemness’ on a purely molecular footing.” It doesn’t mean scientists can’t or won’t, “But it does give one cause to wonder whether something we are doing needs to change, either in the question we are asking or the way we are approaching it.” Perhaps “stemness” is a property of biological systems, not individual cells, Lander suggested. Surprisingly, he referred to the standard philosophical story about phlogiston as an example of how scientific concepts can mislead research. Don’t tell this story to California voters. The bankrupt government is still wondering where to get the $3 billion voters approved for stem cell research after a hyped initiative promised all kinds of miracle cures. The upside of phlogiston theory is that it did eventually lead scientists to a correct understanding of oxygen. Maybe a systems approach to stemness “will continue to light the path toward understanding,” Lander hoped.Is there a scientific method?: Gary J. Nabel of NIH wrote a Perspective piece called “The Coordinates of Truth” in Science.1 The scientific method has driven conceptual inquiry for centuries and still forms the basis of scientific investigation. Yet, the hypothesis-based research paradigm itself has received scant attention recently. Here, I propose an alternative model for this paradigm, based on decision, information, and game theory. Analysis of biomedical research efforts with this model may provide a framework for predicting their likely contributions to knowledge, assessing their impact on human health, and managing research priorities.But what is the scientific method?The scientific method provides a rationale upon which scientific principles are developed, tested, and validated or rejected. For any natural phenomenon, there is a fundamental solution or truth that explains its basis. This solution exists in nature, regardless of whether the observer formulates the best hypothesis to explain it. It may thus be viewed as a set of coordinates in a multidimensional space: the coordinates of truth (see the first figure, panel A). By proposing hypotheses and testing their statistical validity, the hypothesis-driven experiment allows testing and validation of a scientific principle.Nabel seems to be helping himself to the correspondence theory of truth and to the concept of truth itself. He also seems to suggest that all scientists and philosophers are in agreement about the scientific method. He did mention the “paradigm shift” terminology of Thomas Kuhn and talked about anomalies and falsification, but the tone of his article was progressive – as if following the scientific method necessarily guides science to the truth. Nabel contrasted hypothesis generation with hypothesis testing. “Hypothesis generation can create an organized body of knowledge from which insight can emerge,” he said. This seems to confuse data with knowledge and interpretation with insight. He gave examples such as the Human Genome Project and the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Such projects are not testing a hypothesis so much as gathering data from which hypotheses can be generated. The other approach is to start with a hypothesis and run experiments to test it. He suggested both approaches are valid in science but need to be balanced against each other. It may be surprising to readers that the “scientific method” does not factor much in peer review or funding decisions:These considerations have implications for scientific funding. For example, the investigator-initiated grants at the National Institutes of Health allow investigators to propose and test any hypothesis as long as the rationale is justified to a set of peers. The process begins with the vision of the individual scientist and ends with a judgment of its scientific merit. Recently, changes have been proposed for rating these proposals, stressing their impact, but the evaluation remains largely subjective. The meaning of “impact” is ill defined, and there is no systematic way to assign value. In this and many other systems for awarding grants, the scientific community does not take full advantage of the scientific method to prioritize its research portfolio. For example, formal evaluation of hypotheses is not an inherent part of the review. Also, there have been few criteria by which to judge and prioritize grants for hypothesis-generating research.Subjective human opinion, therefore, plays a big role in what is valued in science. “The value of hypothesis-generating efforts should be analyzed critically for the pertinence of the methodology to the question, the overall significance of the problem, and the likelihood of generating a viable and high-impact hypothesis,” he said. But if each of those criteria are all subjective, whose pet project ends up with the money? Nabel did not get down to answering that question. He just ended optimistically, “A modern and rigorous view of the hypothesis-driven research paradigm can similarly help to consolidate a foundation that fundamentally transforms biology and medicine.” It would seem this article begs more questions than it answers. 1. Gary J. Nabel, “Philosophy of Science: The Coordinates of Truth,” Science, 2 October 2009: Vol. 326. no. 5949, pp. 53-54, DOI: 10.1126/science.1177637.Everyone does philosophy, but not everyone does it well. So said Greg Bahnsen, a Christian philosopher of science and theologian. Even saying “I don’t have a philosophy” is a statement of philosophy. Scientists are often better at exposing flaws in others’ research than in thinking consistently and logically themselves. That’s why philosophers of science, who ask the questions that scientists don’t ask, and who strive for clarity and consistency, are often considered gadflies and troublemakers by the science department. When billions of dollars of research funds are at stake, though, the importance of clarifying the terms, values, and logical coherence of scientific claims must be examined critically. With limited resources it also becomes important to identify which scientific questions are worth investigating. One of the best skills you can develop to see through the pretensions of triumphalist science is the ability to detect question-begging arguments. “Begging the question” is the logical fallacy of arguing for a conclusion that has already been assumed in the premise. An example would be claiming evolution is a fact because the Origin of Species says so, or claiming materialism is true because scientists only work with particles and forces. It amounts to “helping oneself” to concepts without paying the price. Gary Nabel talked about the “coordinates of truth” in his article without defining truth. Moreover, he assumed that truth is “out there” in the world, and that we can “discover” it by the “scientific method.” That begs all kinds of questions. If he were among a group of Christians, he could probably get away with it. Materialists, though, would be hard pressed to explain these concepts emerging from fundamental particles and forces. Postmodernists, also, would be quick to ask, “whose truth?” Because most readers of Science are positivists or scientific realists, who believe the public should fund their projects, he can probably get away with his simplistic views in that forum. He would face a barrage of questions in the philosophy, theology and political science departments. The stem-cell and invasive-species articles remind us that simplistic answers to complex questions can be misleading. Take the current political hubbub about human-caused global warming. Much of the discussion revolves around “average global temperature.” Is there such a thing? How would you go about measuring it? At every point on earth, temperatures fluctuate from hour to hour, day to day, year to year, decade to decade. Do we measure temperature at the south pole, or Death Valley, or Rio de Janeiro? OK, you say, we take thousands of measurements all over the globe. But humans cannot possibly have thermometers at every point on the earth’s surface. Selection effects loom large in the discussion. How many points are enough? Are some points given more weight than others? Do we take the measurements at ground level, or at 10 feet or 100 feet off the ground? Do we use the arithmetic average, or the median, or the mode? Do we clip off anomalous measurements? How many significant figures do we use? What statistical methods and error analyses are being performed on the raw data? Do we use a mercury thermometer, an alcohol thermometer, a thermocouple, a bimetallic strip, or a laser thermometer? If we choose one, or combine them, are they responding to the same external reality? What’s the effect of humidity and wind on the measurements? What uncontrolled influences, like the amount of pavement below the thermometer or proximity to urban pollution, could be altering the readings? Have all the thermometers been calibrated to each other? Have all the humans who take and record the measurements received the proper training? Are any of them liars, incompetents, or members of groups with a political agenda? What does the term “temperature” signify, anyway? What is its relation to theories about climate change? Here we have taken a simple example, “the temperature of the earth,” and asked just a few questions that have turned it into a philosophical mess. A scientist might respond that a single station, like the Antarctica thermometer, has been the same instrument used for decades and it shows a clear trend of warming. Even so, many of the same questions could be asked – and additional ones, too. There’s no way to eliminate all subjectivity that goes into measurement and interpretation. The only way to provide protection for taxpayers who end up funding research and paying for political decisions made on scientific consensus is vibrant, active debate. That debate has to include researchers outside the paradigm. History shows that consensus science is no guarantee of truth. Before you get stuck with the bill foisted on you by gullible politicians swallowing consensus science, learn to ask tough questions – and demand answers that don’t beg the question. Now hear this.(Visited 12 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0